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Health related fitness factors
Health related exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are also useful to sportspeople. These are:
  • Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
  • Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw.
  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer.
  • Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
  • Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.
  • NB If you are studying AQA, you should also list speed as a health related fitness factor.
  • Speed is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.
Skill related fitness factors
Skill related fitness factors are essential for success in sport.
These are:
  • Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control. This helps team players dodge their opponents.
  • Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance). This helps gymnasts maintain their position and prevents games players from falling over at speed.
  • Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together. This helps all athletes to move smoothly and quickly especially when also having to control a ball.
  • Power - the ability to use strength at speed. This helps athletes to jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.
  • Reaction time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. This helps swimmers to make a fast start.
  • NB If you are studying Edexcel, you should list speed as a skill related fitness factor.
  • Speed is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.
Follow this link
apuntes de la BBC para los GCSE


PE Poster: Components of Fitness- Health and Skill-Related



A warm up is usually performed before participating in (technical) sports or exercising. A warm up generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport one might slowly jog to warm muscles and increase heart rate. It is important that warm ups should be specific to the exercise that will follow, which means that exercises should prepare the muscles to be used and to activate the energy systems that are required for that particular activity.


  • Reduce injury risk
  • Improve the results of the practice.
Effects on the body:
·         on the locomotor system: it causes an increase in muscle temperature, which improves the speed of contraction and relaxation; it also decreases muscle viscosity, thereby reducing the possibility of a sprain or of pulling a tendon ...
·         On the cardiovascular system: it speed up your heart rate so your heart pumps more blood and delivers more oxygen to your muscles.
·         on the respiratory system: it increases your respiration rate an opens your pulmonary alveoli, increasing the amount of oxygen entering your bloodstream (torrente sanguíneo) and helping eliminate carbon dioxide.
·         on the nervous system: it increase mental activity and imporves attention and reaction speed.

1.-    increase heart rate: jogging or running
2.-    move and stretch the joints
3.-    activate the energy systems and muscles that are required for the particular activity that we are going to do after the warm-up



  • aerobic exercise, which is not too fast, the heart is able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles. Aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness.
  • Anaerobic exercise is performed in short, fast where the heart cannot supply enough oxygen to the muscles.

There is a general consensus in medicine on the range of safe variation in the heart rate for aerobic activity called the target heart rate zone, which is about  60 to 85% of the average maximum heart rate (HRMx) and can be calculated as follows; 220- age.
If your are 15, your HRM is 220-15= 205 bpm. So your target heart rate zone is between 205x0.6= 123 bpm and 205x0.85=174bpm.
You should train for at least 60 minutes a week , divided into two sessions, if you want to improve your endurance significantly. the intensity of this aerobic exercise should be between 60 and 75% or your HRM.
You can monitor (with the heart rate monitor that we have already used) your fitness levels by recording your recovery rate after exercise.  The recovery rate is the time it takes for the pulse rate to return to normal after exercise. Remember that percentages of MHR are approximate and personal levels of activity and fitness will cause differences in the thresholds.

1. Continuous systems;
·         Continuous jogging: run at a constant pace , when you can breath comfortably. Your heart rate should not exceed 150 bpm
·         Fartlek training or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you run, walk, or cycle. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness. the heart rate is between 140 and 180 bpm.
·         total training: combing continuous jogging and Farlek with a variety of differente exercises interspersed with them.
2. Mixed training systems:
·         Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance. Usually they are short intervals with smaller breaks..
·         Interval training involves alternating between periods of hard exercise (running very fast) and rest During the rest you are active, you don´t stop completely. It improves speed and muscular endurance. Your heart rate can reach 180 bpm and during the break should drop to 120-140bpm

General methods of training can be applied to specific sports. For example, continuous training might involve swimming, cycling, rowing, aerobics or running.
When working anaerobically you create an oxygen debt and can only keep going for a short time. Oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would normally be consumed during rest. This results from a shortfall of available oxygen during exercise.

                2. FLEXIBILITY:

       It's the physical quality that allows you to make wide-range movements with a part of your body.
Factors that affect flexibility;
·      the shape of the bones
·      the tightness or looseness of the ligaments (this is hereditary).
·      the muscle´s range of elongation: this is the most influential factor and the one that you can work on the most to improve joint mobility and flexibility.
·      age: the aging process causes a decrease in flexibility due to decalcification and dehydration of tissue.
·      sex: because of hormones and because women skeleton is designed to have a wider range of movement, especially in the hip region.
·      joint anatomy
·      condition of the muscle fibre: elasticity decreases if a muscle is fatigued or if the muscle fibre is scarred from a previous injury.
·      the ability for a muscle to relaz or contract in contrast with its counterpart (agonist-antagonist): this is called intramuscular coordination
·      time of day: your body is stiffer when you wake up and has maximum mobility at midday.
·      social customs: eastern people have more hip flexibility due to their customs of sitting on the floor.
·       environmental and body temperature: warm temperatures facilitate your range of motion.

·         Static stretching is the oldest by far and is performed by holding a position without bouncing for 15”. This causes an increase in the length of the muscle resulting in an improvement in flexibility.  You can do them in an active way (your force gently the position) or passive (the gravity is doing the work)
·         dynamic stretching (PNF): stretching-contraction-relaxation.
1.    take the joint to the maximum extension with your partner helps and hold that  position for 15”-.30"seconds. (passive stretch)
2.    Isometric contraction: try to move the joint, since the previous position to the counter movement .Your partner resist the counter movement. There will be work, but not movement. Keep for 10"-15” seconds
3.    Relax for 2 seconds (exhaling)
4.    Both work to the same way. To the maximum extension of the joint.
·         ballistic stretching :The bounce or bouncing was considered harmful and has been commonly referred to as ballistic stretching.. Regardless, this method has been used for many years to improve flexibility


It´s the body ability to beat or overcome resistance using the tension produced in muscles by the contraction of muscles fibres.
We can talk about 3 different types of strength:
1.    Maximum strength: maximum muscle tension with a muscle concentration. It´s the most strength a person is capable of producing. Example: weight lifting
2.    Relative Strength: The relation between your weight and your strength. relative strength=maximum strength divided by your weight.
3.    Explosive strength: the ability to overcome a small or medium load at maximum movement speed. Example: a jump
4.    Strength endurance: to do a strength activity using an average mass and acceleration for a specific length of time and to resist the fatigue that it causes. Example: rowing


1.    Maximum strength: we are not going to do it. Not healthy for your age.
2.    Relative Strength: It´s not important in PE lessons. We used weights.
3.    Explosive strength: this is a very common type of work. We increase this type of strength with multy-jumps work, where we combined different highs and number of jumps.
4.    Strength endurance: with circuit training sessions. We don´t use much weight but do a high number of repetitions.

It´s the ability to perform one or several movements at maximum intensity in the shortest time possible. There are two new concepts. Intensity and time. We already know two  types of speed: movement speed and travel speed, but we can also include three more types: reaction speed and speed endurance.

1.    Movement speed: the ability to do a movement or sports moves at the right speed to achieve optimum performance.
2.    Travel speed: the ability to cover a distance in the shortest time possible.
3.    Reaction speed: the time that passes from the appearance of a stimulus, which can be visual (ball) or audio (start shot), until the first movement. (moving a leg to start running)
4.    Speed endurance: sustaining a physical exercise at maximum speed for the maximum time possible.
5.    Acceleration speed: or power. The time that you need to get your maximum speed.


1.    Movement speed: you need to improve your strength and your technique.
2.    Travel speed: your frequency of movement and your stride length.
3.    Reaction speed: practicing and trying to anticipate to the stimulus.
4.    Speed endurance: training anaerobic endurance Short exercises and  high intensity.
5.    Acceleration speed: or power. Improving your Strength.